This meta-analysis of 41 studies that included a total of 860?783 patients demonstrates that there were certain epidemiologic and clinical risk factors that are associated with a higher risk of developing PCC. In particular, female sex, older age, higher BMI, and smoking were significantly associated with increased risk of persistent symptoms of 3 months or more after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection, ie, PCC. In addition, preexisting comorbidities, including anxiety and/or depression, asthma, COPD, diabetes, IHD, and immunosuppression were also found to be significantly associated with higher risk of PCC. Furthermore, patients who needed hospitalization or ICU care during the acute phase of COVID-19 infection were found to have more than twice the risk of developing PCC compared with those who were not. On the other hand, vaccination (with 2 doses) for COVID-19 was noted to have a protective role against PCC—vaccinated patients had a significantly lower risk of developing the persistent symptoms of PCC.
Risk Factors Associated With Post?COVID-19 Condition: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | Infectious Diseases | JAMA Internal Medicine | JAMA Network
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